turbidity vs alum dose graph
S. Turbidity Alum PAC % PAC Consumption No. Alum is the most effective for clearing clay turbidity (general term for describing the cloudiness or muddiness of water) from a pond. traditional iron-based coagulants and alum had low turbidity removals and they were often observed to add turbidity to the water. 3) Linear regression of turbidity and optimal dose 0 10 20 30 40 50. With each optimal final turbidity and dose of coagulant obtained, the correspondent graph was made in order to analyze the results to determine if the data presented a linear behavior, which was determined by the use of a linear regression. The range in raw water turbidity is narrow but increases of up to 200 ntu have been documented due to storm events. The pH was targeted from 3 to 8 using a fixed alum dose. Diminishing improvement in turbidity removal was observed for coagulant doses above 15 mg / L alum for both 100 and 500 NTU. The study showed that the removal efficiencies for turbidity and optimum alum dosage were (93% at 20 mg/l, 92% at 20 mg/l, 85% at 30 mg/l, 88% at 30 mg/l and 89.3% at 30 mg/l) respectively. Laboratory studies have shown that alum is effective at reducing turbidity and chlorine demand 3 . For example, a dose of 12 mg/L PACl (as 100%) was required for treatment of a coloured, low turbidity water (Otway region, Victoria) compared to similar performance obtained when using an alum dose of 55 mg/L, and GRAPH:- Plot a graph between the coagulant dose applied and turbidity of coagulated sample, by taking turbidity value on Y-axis and Alum dose on X-axis; as shown below. carefully remove the supernat ant from each beaker and de termine the turbidity in each of the samples. Add 50 mL of water samp le (Vs) to an erlenmeyer flask 2. More typical storm water turbidity ranges are from 20 to 40 ntu. Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 or alum): Aluminum sulfate (commonly called alum) is used as a coagulant, causing colloidal particles to clump together and settle out of the water. The required alkalinity may be naturally present in the water or it has to be added through dosage of lime, Ca(0H)2 or sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 (also called soda ash). Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. 150 35 25 71.4 2. Repeat experiment with six new alum dosages (25 mg/L, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1000). 10. The river is a stable raw water source with a low average incoming turbidity of 6.0 ntu. From the graph patterns obtained in first trail of jar test, it fig. 2200 65 40 61.5 Table 6. Table 5. Aluminium sulfate (alum), the most widely used coagulant in 2. Plot and analyze graphs of (i) turbidity vs pH, (ii) log (alum dose [M]) vs pH, and (iii) turbidity vs log (alum dose [M]). At an influent turbidity of 100 NTU, effluent turbidity was strongly correlated with coagulant dose at coagulant doses of 1 to 7.5 mg / L alum. Alum dose and pH control of coagulation were found to be important factors governing DOM removal. Data Analysis: 1. When applying Aluminum Sulfate, it’s recommended that the pH is between 6.5 and 8.2. dosage vs. zeta potential and turbidity it can be seen that when the zeta potential of the dispersion results in a near zero zeta potential, the turbidity, or cloudiness, of the mixture is also nearly zero. 6-Discussion: Coagulation units require precise dosage control in order to remain effective. Analysis of zeta potential vs. coagulant dosage results are used to evaluate the effectiveness of various chemicals (typical examples are 800 80 40 50.0 4. The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L −1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. Determine the optimum alum dose in mg/L as Al and as alum. The coagulation efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range of 10 to 40 mg/L at pH range of 4-8 (Fig. The drawback of alum is that the necessary dosage varies unpredictably. 4.1 Turbidity Removal Low Turbidity (10 To 50 NTU) The results of the dosage optimization of MO using jar test is a dose of 32 mg/L using 25 % w/w oil extracted MO seed, MO reduced the turbidity from 50 to 4.3 NTU, corresponding to a turbidity removal of 91.4%. 6 Page Exp. The plant has a 176 million gallon raw water storage facility which is seasonally dosed with a preoxidant, potassium permanganate, to control algae and associated taste… Mixing Alum with water about 8.2 can be toxic to fish. 0mg/L Alum Dose (control), 47, Being the control experiment, no percentage of turbidity got removed. From the results obtained in the previous sections, the optimum dose of Alum Coagulant is 20mg/l. alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. For good coagulation the optimal dose of coagulant should be fed into the water and 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Turbidity variations vs Alum coagulant dosage Alum coagulant A Alum coagulant B Coagulant (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Figure 2: Variation of turbidity in different jars for both sample, A and B using Alum coagulant. 1). 550 40 35 87.5 3. turbidity and S4 which had the maximum phosphorus concentration at inlet used an Alum dose of above 20 mg/L was sufficient to drop TP concentration to less than 0.025 mg/L. Based on the experiment conducted, the graph of turbidity vs alum dosage has been plotted and mark as a Figure 1. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). Coagulation in combination with flocculation and sedimentation Deter mine the pH of each t reated water sample. ♦ less sludge is produced compared to alum at an equivalent dose, ♦ lower doses are required to give equivalent results to alum. Alkalinity Measurement 1. 6. If the pH of the water is between 4 and 5, alum is generally present in the form of positive ions (i.e., Al(OH)2+, Al8(OH)4+, and Al3+). Performance vs. Alum Dosage. The application is usually a few hundred pounds per surface acre. Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. 1. PACl and ACH had similar percent removals for color and turbidity achieving consistent percent removals of 95% and 45%, respectively, but PACl was less effective than ACH at removing organics. Prepare a graph of residual turbidity on the left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the right-hand ordinate versus alum dose. Water is drawn from the Delaware River twice daily as the tide flows upriver. However, optimum coagulation occurs when with poly aluminum chloride and alum showed that the efficiency of the removal of all three; turbidity, color and TSS was higher by using of poly aluminum chloride than alum, with considering that, the dosage of alum was nearly five times as poly aluminum chloride, (Ghafari et al., 2009). However, over-dosing was In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose … Minimum turbidity represent that the flocculation and coagulation happen effectively which cause the water to be clear. 2. 7 shows the average results of For example, alum reacts to form aluminium-hydroxide floc, Al(OH)3, a gelatinous precipitate. S. Dose of Aluminium Concn. Optimum removal of turbidity (98%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (70%) was achieved for 100 mg alum L-1 at pH 5. NTU mg/L mg/L against % Alum Consumption 1. Settled Turbidity TOC Removal. when alum is used for coagulation because the solubility of the aluminum species in water is pH dependent. Comparative dose to bring down the turbidity to 5 NTU. Plots of turbidity versus coagulant dose for Water A with alum, Water B with ferric chloride and Water B with alum all showed a continual decrease in turbidity with an increase in coagulant dose. Alum dosage typically in the 10 – 60 PPM range depending on the results of the Jar test, Flow and turbidity measurement can be used to adjust dosage of the Alum. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. Measure the alkal inity of the sample with the largest alum concentration. Plot graph of coagulant dosage vs. color, turbidity, aluminum and TSS 7.5.2 Set 2: Variation of pH (optimum dosage of PAC) 1. 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